# Learning Python

## 9. Operators

### 9.1. Arithmetic operators

Operator Name Example
Subtraction x – y
* Multiplication x * y
/ Division x / y
% Modulus x % y
** Exponentiation x ** y
// Floor division x // y

### 9.2. Comparison operators

Operator Name Example
Equal x y
!= Not equal x != y
> Greater than x > y
< Less than x < y
>= Greater than or equal to x >= y
<= Less than or equal to x <= y

### 9.3. Logical operators

Operator Description Example
and Returns True if both statements are true x < 5 and x < 10
or Returns True if one of the statements is true x < 5 or x < 4
not Reverse the result, returns False if the result is true not(x < 5 and x < 10)

### 9.4. Identity operators

Operator Description Example
is Returns True if both variables are the same object x is y
is not Returns True if both variables are not the same object x is not y

### 9.5. Membership operators

Operator Description Example
in Returns True if a sequence with the specified value is present in the object x in y
not in Returns True if a sequence with the specified value is not present in the object x not in y

### 9.6. Bitwise operators

Operator Name Description
& AND Sets each bit to 1 if both bits are 1
| OR Sets each bit to 1 if one of two bits is 1
^ XOR Sets each bit to 1 if only one of two bits is 1
~ NOT Inverts all the bits
<< Zero fill left shift Shift left by pushing zeros in from the right and let the leftmost bits fall off
>> Signed right shift Shift right by pushing copies of the leftmost bit in from the left, and let the rightmost bits fall off

### 9.7. Assignment operators

Operator Description Example Long form
= Assignment x = 2 x = 2
+= Arithmetic Addition x += 2 x = x + 2
-= Arithmetic Subtraction x -= 2 x = x – 2
*= Arithmetic Multiplication x *= 2 x = x * 2
/= Arithmetic Division x /= 2 x = x / 2
%= Arithmetic Modulus x %= 2 x = x % 2
//= Arithmetic Exponentiation x //= 2 x = x // 2
**= Arithmetic Floor division x **= 2 x = x ** 2
&= Bitwise AND x &= 2 x = x & 2
|= Bitwise OR x |= 2 x = x | 2
^= Bitwise XOR x ^= 2 x = x ^ 2
>>= Bitwise Shift Left x >>= 2 x = x >> 2
<<= Bitwise Shift Right x <<= 2 x = x << 2